Volume : 2, Issue : 4, APR 2016
VOCATIONALIZATION OF SECONDARY AND HIGHER EDUCATION: CHALLENGES AND ISSUES
Dr. Priti Chaudhari
According to the Government of India (2010), India is making a distinction between work-centred education, which is known as 'vocationalized education', and 'vocational education' at the upper-secondary level. Currently, there are no relationships between these two components. Work education is included in the primary standards (grades 1–8) to make the students aware of the concept of work. At the lower secondary level (grades 9 –10) pre-vocational education does exist, and aims to increase students' familiarity with the world of work. The need to bring together vocational and academic education at the level of policy plans was recognized by the Indian government. On the one hand, it identified a need to reconstruct the entire school curriculum around a common core curriculum that will incorporate workbased pedagogy. A set of work-related generic competencies (basic, interpersonal and systemic) is planned to be addressed at all stages of education and be included in assessment. Among others, such generic competencies as 'critical thinking, transfer of learning, creativity, communication skills, aesthetics, work motivation, work
ethics of collaboration, entrepreneurship and social accountability' are to be included. The rapid transformation of societies in their social, political, economic, technological, and education spheres has changed perspectives on the need for and nature of
vocational skills. A historical change of views on vocationalization from more educational to more functional (where the development of employability skills became the main focus) has broadened the nature of vocationalization and included separate technical courses under its umbrella. Within general secondary education there is a diverse pattern of provision of Technical and Vocational Education and Training. This includes at least two levels, lower secondary and upper secondary, and is delivered within two modes, as embedded learning and as separate course/programmes. Many versions of post-secondary and tertiary delivery are in place. The degree to which vocationalization occurs and its nature depends on the level of economic development and on cultural traditions. Social, economic and technology rationales are used by governments to decide on their particular vocationalization policy.
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