Volume : 5, Issue : 6, JUN 2019

PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION AS A TEACHING STRATEGY.

DR. BIPASHA SINHA

Abstract

Programmed instruction was developed to make the teaching-learning process more effective and custom-made according to
individual differences. Knowledge advancement and innovative practices is intricately related with developing new abilities to
learn. Programmed learning-teaching process deals with adopting suitable instructional design for providing the learner with
experiences and organizing teacher pupil activities which is essential for effective use of curricular content and achievement of
curricular objectives. It is important for every teacher not only to have mastery of the subject she teaches but also to know
how to use various types of instructional design and aids that facilitate the teaching-learning process optimally. This paper
discusses the meaning, principles of programmed instructions, development of programmed instructional material in
teaching, styles of programmed instructions (namely branched programme, linear programme, mathetics programme), the
advantages / disadvantages of programmed instructions and suggestions for use of this strategy as an effective pedagogy.

Keywords

PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION BRANCHED PROGRAMME, LINEAR PROGRAMME, MATHETICS PROGRAMME.

Article : Download PDF

Cite This Article

Article No : 12

Number of Downloads : 403

References

1. Aggrawal, J.C. (2014).Essentials of Educational Technology. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House Pvt Ltd.
2. Crowder, N. A. (1959). Automatic tutoring by means of intrinsic programming. In E. Galanter (Ed.),
Automatic teaching: The state of the art (pp. 109-116). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
3. Crowder, N. A. (1960). Automatic tutoring by intrinsic programming. In A. A. Lumsdaine & R. Glaser (Eds.), Teaching machines and programmed learning: A source book (pp. 286-298). Washington, D.C.: National Education Association of the United States.
4. Crowder, N.A. (1962). Intrinsic and extrinsic programming. In J. E. Coulson (Ed.), Programmed learning and computer-based instruction (pp. 58-66). New York:Wiley & Sons.
5. Deterline, W. A. (1962). An introduction to programed instruction. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
6. Espich, J. E., & Williams, B. (1967). Developing programmed instructional materials: A handbook for program writers. Palo Alto, CA: Fearon Publishers.
7. Gilbert, T. F.(1961). “Mathetics: The Technology of Education: I—The General System”. New York: TOR Education, Inc.
8. Glaser, R. (Ed.). (1965). Teaching machines and programmed learning II: Data and directions. Washington, D.C.: National Education Association of the United States.
9. Goodman, R. (1962). Programmed learning and teaching machines: An introduction. London: The English Universities Press Limited.
10. Kulik, J. A. (1982). Individualized systems of instruction. In H. E. Mitzel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of educational research (5th ed., pp. 851-858). New York: Macmillan.
11. Leith, G.O.M. (1966). A Handbook of Programmed Learning (2nd Ed.). Educational review Occasional Publication. No 1, University of Birmingham, U.K.
12. Lysaught, J. P., & Williams, C. M. (1963). A guide to programmed instruction. New York: John Wiley and
Sons, Inc.
13. Mangal S.K. and Mangal, UMA (2010), Essentials of Educational Technology, New Delhi, Asok Ghosh
PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
14. Margulies S. & Eigen L.D. (1961). Applied programmed instruction. New York: Wiley.
15. Pathak, R.P. & Chaudhary J (2012) Educational Technology, New Delhi: Pearson.
16. Rosenshine, B., & Stevens, R. (1986). Teaching functions. In M. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (3rd ed.) (376-391). New York: Macmillan.
17. Shukla, C.(2008). Essentials of educational technology and management New Delhi: Dhanpatrai Publications
18. Skinner, B. F. (1959). The programming of verbal knowledge. In E. Galanter (Ed.), Automatic teaching: The state of the art (pp. 63-68). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
19. Skinner, B.F. (1968). The technology of teaching. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
20. Smith, W. I. and Moore, J. W. (1962), Programed learning. Pp. 166–192. Princeton: Van Nostrand Co. Ltd.