Volume : 2, Issue : 7, JUL 2016


Angela Alibrandi, Agata Zirilli, Rosaria Barbara Ucchino, Marietta Salvo


An important choice in personal experience, for those attending the last year of high school, is undoubtedly the one that concerns the decision whether to undertake university studies or enter the working world. The present paper is aimed at evaluating the choice and the propensity of students, attending the last year of high school, towards university enrolment; therefore, we want to study the tendency that they have expressed, through the completion of a questionnaire, to continue their studies or to enter in the working context; in this way we obtained a comprehensive view of the progress of an important social weight phenomenon. An ``ad hoc" survey, realized on a sample of students in Messina, a town in the Southern Italy, has allowed the collection of statistical information on a total of 837 units. In our analysis we performed comparisons between students, based on appropriate grouping variables, within two strata (those who intend to continue their studies and who intend to enter immediately in the employment context). From a methodological point of view, we used the NPC test based on permutation solution. It was chosen for its several optimal properties, that make it very flexible and widely applicable in several fields; in particular, it allows stratified analyses and represents an effective solution for problems concerning the testing of multidimensional hypotheses, that are difficult to face in a parametric context.


Post-diploma choices, University enrollment, NPC test.

Article : Download PDF

Cite This Article

Article No : 1

Number of Downloads : 371


1. Frosini B.V., Montinaro M., Nicolini G. (1999). Il campionamento da popolazioni finite,
UTET, Torino.
2. Pesarin F., Salmaso L. (2010). Permutation Tests for Complex Data: Theory,
Applications and Software.Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics, Chichester.
3. Pesarin F. (2001). Multivariate permutation tests with applications in biostatistics.
Wiley, Chichester.
4. Corain L., Salmaso L. (2004). Multivariate and multistrata nonparametric tests: the
nonparametric combination method. Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods,
3, 443-461.
5. Pesarin F., Salmaso L. (2006). Permutation Tests For Univariate And Multivariate
Ordered Categorical Data, Austrian Journal of Statistics, 35, 315-324.
6. Klingenberg B., Solari A., Salmaso L., Pesarin F. (2008). Testing marginal
homogeneity against stochastic order in multivariate ordinal data. Biometrics (DOI:
10.1111/j.1541-0420.2008. 01067.x), 65, 452-462.
7. Brombin C., Salmaso L. (2009). Multi-aspect permutation tests in shape analysis with
small sample size, Computational Statistics & Data Analysis (doi:
8. Finos L., Salmaso L. (2006). Weighted methods controlling the multiplicity when the
number of variables is much higher than the number of observations. Journal of
Nonparametric Statistics, 18, 2, 245-261.
9. Basso D., Chiarandini M., Salmaso L. (2007). Synchronized permutation tests in IJ
designs, Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference, 137, 2564-2578.
10. Arboretti Giancristofaro R., Bonnini S., Salmaso L. (2009). Employment status and
education/ employment relationship of PhD graduates from the University of Ferrara.
Journal of Applied Statistics. (doi.org/10.1080/ 02664760802638108).
11. Arboretti Giancristofaro R., Pesarin F., Salmaso L., Solari A. (2007). Nonparametric
procedure for testing for dropout rates on university courses with application to an
Italian case study. In: S. Sawilowsky (ed.), Real Data Analysis. Charlotte, NC:
Information Age Publishing, 355-385.
12. Bonnini S.,Salmaso L, Solari A. (2005). Multivariate permutation tests for evaluating
effectiveness of universities through the analysis of students dropouts. Statistica &
Applicazioni, 3, 37-44.
13. Zirilli A., Alibrandi A. (2009). A permutation approach to evaluate
hyperhomocysteinemia in epileptic patients. In: Supplemento ai rendiconti del circolo
matematico di Palermo. VII International Conference in ``Stochastic Geometry,
Convex Bodies, Empirical Measures and application to mechanics and Engineering
train-transport", Messina, 22-24 April 2009, 369-378.
14. Arboretti Giancristofaro R., Brombin C., Pellizzari S., Salmaso L., Mozzanega B.
(2008). Nonparametric methods applied to nuchal translucency and fetal macrosomia.
Journal of Biostatistics 2, 19-36.
15. Alibrandi A., Zirilli A. (2007). A statistical evaluation on high seric levels of D-Dimer:
a case control study to test the influences of ascites. In Atti S.Co.2007 Conference,
CLEUP, Padova, 9-14.
16. Bonnini S., Corain L., Munaò F., Salmaso L. (2006). Neurocognitive Effects in Welders
Exposed to Aluminium: An Application of the NPC Test and NPC Ranking Methods.
Statistical Methods and Applications, Journal of the Statistical Society, 15, 2, 191-208.
17. Zirilli A., Alibrandi A., Spadaro A., Freni M.A. (2005). Prognostic factors of survival in
the cirrhosis of the liver: A statistical evaluation in a multivariate approach. In Atti
S.Co.2005 Conference, CLEUP, Padova, 173-178.
18. Arboretti Giancristofaro R., Marozzi M., Salmaso L. (2005). Repeated measures
designs: a permutation approach for testing for active effects. Far East Journal of
Theoretical Statistics, Special Volume on Biostatistics, 16, 2, 303-325.
19. Salmaso L. (2005). Permutation tests in screening two-level factorial experiments.
Advances and Applications in Statistics, 5, 1, 91-110
20. Callegaro A., Pesarin F., Salmaso L. (2003). Test di permutazione per il confronto di
curve di sopravvivenza. Statistica Applicata 15, 2, 241-261.
21. Finos L., Pesarin F., Salmaso L., Solari A. (2004). Nonparametric iterated procedure for
testing genetic differentiation, Atti XLIII Riunione Scientifica SIS, CLEUP, Padova.
22. Di Castelnuovo A., Mazzaro D., Pesarin F., Salmaso L. (2000). Test di permutazione
multidimensionali in problemi d'inferenza isotonica: un'applicazione alla genetica.
Statistica 60, 4, 691-700.
23. Merico M. (2004). Giovani e società, Carocci Editore, Roma.
24. Ferrari Occhionero M. (2002). Disagio sociale e malessere generazionale. Dinamiche
valoriali tra persistenza e mutamento, FrancoAngeli, Milano.
25. Scanagatta S.(2002). Socializzazione e capitale umano. La sociologia dell'educazione
e le sfide della globalizzazione, Cedam, Padova.
26. Scanagatta S, Maccarini A.M. (2012). L'educazione come capitale sociale. Culture
civili e percorsi educativi in Italia, Franco Angeli, Milano.
27. Bauman Z. (1999). La società, Il Mulino, Bologna.
28. Franchi M. (2005). Mobili alla meta. I giovani tra università e lavoro, Donzelli Editore,