Volume : 8, Issue : 11, NOV 2022




Terrorism in Punjab resulted in the killing of thousands of innocent people. It fractured the social fabric and blunted the sensibilities of the people. These developments made democratic institutions and processes, political parties, and moderate leadership irrelevant. The agenda for politics was dictated by hardliners within Sikh politics and the repressive state apparatus. Thus, it had become a great challenge for democracy in Punjab. An attempt has been made in this paper to analyses the violation of human rights of the people of Punjab by terrorism and counter terrorism. This paper is divided into five parts. Both primary and secondary sources have been used in this paper. Both published and unpublished sources have been used. The methodology and approaches used in this paper has a holistic dimension by taking in view the various aspects of Punjab politics.



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  1. For detailed study see, Singh, Bhupinder (2015), Punjab Politics: Retrospect and Prospect, Readworthy Publications (P) Ltd., New Delhi, pp. 54-79.
  2. Singh, Ranbir (5-6 March 2011), “Khap Panchayats and Human Rights: An Analysis,” Proceeding of U.G.C. sponsored national seminar on Human Rights: A Study in the Development of Society held at D.A.V. College, Ambala City, pp. 11-14.
  3. Narang, A. S. (1995), “Punjab Elections 1992: Meaning and Trends” in Verinder Grover, ed., The Story of Punjab: Yesterday and Today, Vol.2, Deep & Deep Publications, New Delhi, pp. 119
  4. Sharma, D. P. (1996), The Punjab Story (Decade of Turmoil), APH Publishing Corporation, New Delhi, pp 26-27.
  5. Dang, Satya Pal (2000), “Terrorism in Punjab” in V.D. Chopra & Ravi M. Bakaya, eds., Gyan Publishing House, New Delhi, pp 42-44.
  6. Marwaha, Ved (1995), Uncivil Wars: Pathology of Terrorism in India, INDUS, New Delhi, pp. 157-160.
  7. Sharma, op.cit., pp. 23-26.
  8. Grewal, J. S. (1994), The Sikhs of Punjab, Cambridge University Press, New Delhi, pp. 226-227.
  9. Marwah, op.cit., pp. 202-207.
  10. Ibid.
  11. Sharma, op.cit.,pp. 243.
  12. Marwah, op.cit., pp. 202-207.
  13. For details see, Singh, Gurdarshan (August 1997), “Militancy and State Violence in Punjab: Varient Perceptions”, The Sikh Review, Vol. 45: 8, No. 524, pp.72-74 and Johl, S. S., (July 1997) “Violation of Human Rights,” The Sikh Review, Vol. 45: 7, No. 523, pp. 53-57.
  14. Ibid.
  15. Ibid.
  16. Singh, Kuldip (October1997), “Mystery of Sandhu’s Suicide- The 25002nd Corpse?”, The Sikh Review, Vol. 45: 10, No. 526, pp. 49-51.
  17. Refer to Foot Note 5 and 6.
  18. For further details regarding the State and counter terrorism see, Puri,Harish K. & Others, eds., (1999), Terrorism in Punjab, Understanding Grassroots Reality, Har-Anand Publications Pvt. Ltd., pp. 111-137.