Volume : 8, Issue : 3, MAR 2022

TIGER, CO-PREDATORS- COMPLEXITY, PREDATION OF WILD UNGULATES FACILITATING VULTURE SURVIVAL IN PANNA TIGER RESERVE, MADHYA PRADESH, CENTRAL INDIA.

UDAYA KUMAR DAS*, VIBHAV SHRIVASTAV

Abstract

The vulture population is still in threat in Indian subcontinent as the population is threatened due to the effect of diclofenac compound from food chain and affecting breeding. Populations of three species of Gyps vulture's namely G. bengalensis (White-rumped vulture), G. tenuirostris (Slender-billed vulture) and G. indicus (Indian Vulture) in Central India have declined precipitously over the last decade as a result of their feeding on diclofenac contaminated livestock carcasses. In the Panna Tiger reserve, it is studied that the wild ungulate prey base provides pure form of food chain without diclofenac and other toxic chemicals imbedded in the muscle tissue for predators like vultures and tiger and its co-predators. This is the only reason the west central part of the country has still existed vulture population in wild. The tiger prey facilitates sustainable food cycle for the existing vulture population in the west central Indian landscape. On the other hand, consumption of tiger kill carcass flesh by vulture triggers more frequent kill of prey for tiger. It will help in co-existence both tiger and vulture in the same landscape. Panna Tiger Reserve has suitable habitat for vultures and tiger and its co-predators like leopard and stripped hyena, wild dog, Mostly Sambar kill was scavenged by the vulture as it is bigger and tiger could not consume in a single day, then chital. The kill presence was noticed even from hiding bushes by crows and kites and it act as a communication to vultures to locate and feed by the vultures. Places like Dhundva, Kemasan and Gahri Ghati are supposed to be the best site including other nine roosting, resting and breeding sites of vultures in Panna during the study of 2005-2006 and 2018-19.

Keywords

VULTURE POPULATION, UNGULATE PREY-BASE, DICLOFENAC CONTAMINATION, PANNA TIGER RESERVE, TIGER KILL.

Article : Download PDF

Cite This Article

Article No : 3

Number of Downloads : 73

References

  1. Ali S. & Ripley S.D. 1987. Compact handbook of the Birds of India, Pakistan, together with those of Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and Sri Lanka. Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 737pp.
  2. BirdLife International, 2000. Threatened Birds of the world. Lyanx Edicion. Barcelana and BirdLife International, Cambridge. BirdLife International 2004. Threatened Birds of the World 2004. CD-ROM. Bird Life International, Cambridge, UK.
  3. BirdLife International 2007. Sarcogyps calvus. In: IUCN 2007. 2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 September 2007 & (http://www.iucn.org/en/news/archive/2007/09/12 _pr_redlist.htm)
  4. BirdLife International 2007b. Egyptian Vulture - BirdLife Species Factsheet. Retrieved 2007-AUG28.
  5. Blanco G, Lemus JA, Martínez F, Arroyo B, García-Montijano M, et al. Ingestion of multiple veterinary drugs and associated impact on vulture health: implications of livestock carcass elimination practices. Anim Conserv. 2009;12:571–580.
  6. Cuthbert R., Green R.E., Ranade S., Saravanan S., Pain D.J., Prakash V. & Cunningham A.A. 2006. Rapid population declines of Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) and red-headed vulture (Sarcogyps calvus) in India. Animal Conservation 9: 349–354.
  7. Gilbert M., Virani M.Z., Watson R.T., Oaks J.L., Benson P.C., Khan A.A., Ahmed S., Chaudhry J., Arshad M., Mahmood S., Shah Q.A. 2002. Breeding and mortality of oriental white-backed vulture Gyps bengalensis in Punjab Province, Pakistan. Bird Conservation International 12: 311−326.
  8. Green R.E., Newton I., Shultz S., Cunningham A.A., Gilbert M., Pain D.J. & Prakash V. 2004. Diclofenac poisoning as a cause of population declines across the Indian subcontinent. J. Appl. Ecol. 41: 793–800.
  9. Gurjar, R. L. 2009. A vulture population survey in Ranthambore Tiger Reserve, India. Indian Birds 4 (3): 113–114 (2008).
  10. Gurjar R.L & Gawande P.J (2011): A Note on the Vulture Population in Panna Tiger Reserve, Central India, Podoces, Journal homepage: www.wesca.net 2011, Volume 6 No (1):PP 83–86.
  11. Hernández M, Margalida A. Poison-related mortality effects in the endangered Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus) population in Spain: conservation measures. Eur J Wildl Res. 2009;55:415–423
  12. Jhala Y.V., Gopal R. & Qureshi Q. (Eds.). 2008. Status of the tigers, co-predators, and prey in India. New Delhi & Dehradun: National Tiger Conservation Authority, Govt. of India & Wildlife Institute of India. TR08/001 pp 164
  13. Kazmierczak K. 2000. A Field Guide to the Birds of India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and the Maldives. London: Pica Press / Christopher Helm.
  14. Margalida, Antoni.; Ma , Àngels; Colomer, and Sanuy, Delfi.  (2011): Can Wild Ungulate Carcasses Provide Enough Biomass to Maintain Avian Scavenger Populations? An Empirical Assessment Using a Bio-Inspired Computational Model PLoS One. 2011; 6(5): e20248.Published online 2011 May 24. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020248.
  15. Oaks J.L., Gilbert M., Virani M.Z., Watson R.T., Meteyer C.U., Rideout B.A., Shivaprasad H.L., Ahmed S., Chaudry M.J.I., Arshad M., Mahmood S., Ali A. & Khan A.A. 2004. Diclofenac residues as the cause of population decline of vultures in Pakistan. Nature 427: 630–633.
  16. Prakash V., Pain D.J., Cunningham A.A., Donald P.F., Prakash N., Verma A., Gargi R., Sivakumar S. & Rahmani A.R. 2003. Catastrophic collapse of Indian white- backed Gyps bengalensis and long-billed Gyps indicus vulture populations. Biological Conservation 109: 381–390.
  17. Shultz S., Baral H.S., Charman S., Cunningham A.A., Das D., Ghalsasi G.R., Goudar M.S., Green R.E., Jones A., Nighot P., Pain D.J. & Prakash V. 2004. Diclofenac poisoning is widespread in declining vulture populations across the Indian subcontinent. Proc. Royal Soc. Lond B (Suppl) 271: S458–S460, DOI 10.1098/rsbl.2004.0223
  18. Naidoo V, Wolker K, Cuthbert R, Duncan N. Veterinary diclofenac threatens Africa's endangered vulture species. Regul Toxicol Pharm. 2009;53:205–208.
  19. Tellería, J.L. Overlap between wind power plants and Griffon Vultures Gyps fulvus in Spain. Bird Study. 2009; 57:352–360.
  20. Gangoso, L.; Álvarez-Lloret, P.; Rodríguez-Navarro A.B.; Mateo R.; Hiraldo F et al. ;Long-term effects of lead poisoning on bone mineralization in vultures exposed to ammunition resources. Environ Poll. 2009; 157:569–574.