Volume : 2, Issue : 2, FEB 2016


N. Muhammad, K. M. Aljameel, S. A. Maigandi, I. A. Abubakar


An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of varying levels of Parkia biglobosa yellow pulp on the performance of Uda rams. The animals were fed diets containing 0, 10, 20 and 30% inclusion levels of P. biglobosa yellow pulp in a completely randomised experimental design replicated four times. Data were collected for 12 consecutive weeks on rectal temperature, and testicular traits. Result indicated no significant difference between the treatments on all the testicular parameters (P>0.05). However, there were significant difference in rectal temperature (P<0.05). It was concluded that the yellow fruit pulp of Parkia biglobosa could be incorporated up to a level of 30% in the diet of sheep without deleterious effect to the productive and physiological functions of the animals.


Testicular traits, Uda Rams, Parkia biglobosa, fruit pulp

Article : Download PDF

Cite This Article

Article No : 1

Number of Downloads : 690


Abbasi, M. A., & Ghafouri-Kesbi, F. (2011). Genetic (co)variance components for body weight and body measurements in Mokooei sheep. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Science, 24(6), 739–743.

Agga, G. E., Udala, U., Regassa, F., & Wudie, A. (2011). Body measurements of bucks of three goats in Ethiopia and their correlation to breed, age and testiculer measurements. Small Ruminant Research, 95(2-3), 133–138.

Akpa, G. N., Alphonsus, C., & Duru, S. (2006). The relationships between Body Growth parameters and Testicular and Horn development in Yankasa Rams. Production Agriculture and Technology (PAT), Nigeria, 2(2), 72–74.

Aljendro, B., Perez, R., Pedrana, G., Milton, J. T., Lopez, A., Blackberry, M. A., … Martin, G. B. (2002). Low maternalnutrition during pregnancy reduces the number of sertoli cells in the new born lamb. Reproduction And Fertility Development, 14, 333–337.

Alphonsus, C., Akpa, G. N., & Oni, O. O. (2009). Repeatability of objective measurements of linear udder and body conformation traits in Frisian x Bunaji cows. Animal Production Research Advances, 5(4), 224–231.

Avellaneda, Y., Rodríguez, F., Grajales, H., Martínez, R., & Vasquez, R. (2006). Development of macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of ejaculates from Chios, Serres and Karaguniki breed lambs. Livestock Research for Rural Development, 8(10).

Bailey, T. L., Monkey, D., Hudson, R. S., Wolfe, D. F., Carson, R. L., & Ridell, M. G. (1996). Testicular shape and its relationship in sperm production of matured Holstein bulls. Theriogenelogy, 46, 881–887.

Bielli, A., Gastel, M. T., Pedrana, G., Morana, A., Castrillejo, A., Lundeheim, N., … Rodriguez-Martinez, H. (2000). Influence of pre and post pubertal grazing regiems on adult testicular morphology in extensively reared Corriedalr rams. Animal Reproduction Science, 58, 73–86.

Bielli, A., Pedrana, G., Gastel, M. T., Castrillejo, A., Morana, A., Lundeheim, N., … Rodriguez-Martinez, H. (1999). Influence of grazing management on the seasonal changes in testicular morphology in Corriedale rams. Animal Reproduction Science, 56, 93–105.

Boligon, A. A., Silva, J. A. V., Sesana, R. C., Sesana, J. C., Junqueira, J. B., & Albuquerque, L. G. (2010). Estimation of genetic parameters for body weights , scrotal cicumference, and testicular volume measured in different ages in Nellore cattle. Journal of Animal Science, 88(4), 1215–1219.

Braden, A. W. H., Turnbull, K. E., Mattner, P. E., & Moule, G. R. (1974). Effect of protein and energy content of the diet on the rate of sperm production in rams. Aistralian Journal Of Biological Science, 27, 67–73.

Brown, B. W. (1994). A review of nutritional influences on reproduction in boars, bulls and rams. Reproduction And Nutrition Development, 34, 89–114.

Cameron, A. W. N., Murphy, P. M., & Oldham, C. M. (1988). Nutrition of rams and output of spermatozao. Australian Society and Animal Production, 17, 162–165.

Emsen, E. (2005). Testiculer development and body weight gain from birth to 1 year of age of Awassi and Redkaraman sheep and their reciprocal crosses. Small Ruminant Research, 29(1), 79–82.

Fernandez, M., Giralde, F. J., Frutos, P., Lavin, P., & Mantecon, A. R. (2004). Effects of undegradable protein supply on testicular size, spermiogram prameters and sexual behavior of amture Assaf rams. Theriogenology, 62, 299–310.

Fourie, P. J., Schwalbach, L. M., Neser, F. W. C., & Van der Westhuizen, C. (2004). Scrotal, testicular and semen characteristics of young Dorper rams managed under intensive and extensive conditions. Small Ruminant Research, 54(1), 53–59.

Herrera-Alarcón, J., Villagomez-Amezcua, E., González-Padilla, E., & Jimenez-Severiano, H. (2007). Stereological study of posnatal testicular development in BlackBelly sheep. Theriogenology, 68, 582–591.

Mamman, A. B., Oyebanji, J. O., & Petters, W. S. (2000). Nigeria: A people united, a future assure (survey states) (2nd ed.). Calabar, Nigeria: Gabumo Publishing Company Limited.

Martin, G. B., Walkden-brown, S. W., & Blackberry, M. A. (1994). Effects of nutrition on testiculer size and the plasma concentrations of gonadotrophins, testoterone and inhibition in mature male sheep. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 101, 121–128.

Masters, D. G., & Fels, H. E. (1984). Seasonal changes in the testicular size of grazing rams. Australian Society and Animal Production, 15, 444–447.

Mert, H., Karakus, K., Y?lmaz, A., Aygun, T., Mert, N., Apayd?n, B., & Seyhan, E. (2009). Effects of Genotype on Testis, Semen Quality, and Mineral Composition of Semen in Various Ram Breeds. Biological Trace Element Research, 132(1-3), 93–102.

Mitchell, L. M., Ranilla, M. J., Quintans, G., King, M. E., Gebbie, F. E., & Robinson, J. J. (2003). Effect of diet on GnRH administration on post partum ovarian cyclicity in the autumn-lambing ewes. Animal Reproduction Science, 76, 67–79.

Mota, E. C., Santos, A. M., Toste, F. P., Sampaio, F. J. B., & Ramos, C. F. (2001). Effects of malnutrition in the testis. Brazilian Journal of Urology, 27, 500–506.

Moule, G. R. (1963). Postpubertal nutrition and reproduction by the male. Australian Veterinary Journal, 39, 299–304.

Murray, P. J., Rowe, J. B., Pethic, D. W., & Adams, N. R. (1990). The effect of nutrition on testicular growth in the Merino rams. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 41, 185–195.

Okolski, A., Szuperski, T., & Bielanski, W. (1971). Sexual behaviour and semen characteristics of rams during severe underfeeding. Bull L’acad Polanaisc Science Series and Science Biology, 19, 701–705.

Parker, G. V., & Thwaites, C. J. (1972). The effects of under nutrition on libido and semen quality in adult Merino rams. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 23, 109–115.

Rowe, J. B., & Murray, P. J. (1984). Production characteristics of rams given supplements containing different levels of proteins and metabolisable energy. Australian Society and Animal Production, 15, 565–568.

Salamon, S. (1964). The effect of nutritional regime on the potential semen production in rams. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 15, 645–656.

Salhab, S. A., Zarkawi, M., Wardeh, M. F., Al-Masri, M. R., & Kassem, R. (2002). Development of testicular dimensions and size, and their relationshi to age, body weight and parental size in growing Awassi ram lambs. Small Ruminant Research, 40(2), 187–191.

Salisbury, G. W., & VanDemark, N. L. (1961). Physiology of reproductio and artificial insemination of cattle. Sanfransisco and London: Freeman and Co.

SAS. (2002). Statview statistical package. SAS incoporated, Newyork.

Schulte-Hostedde, A. I., Millar, J. S., & Hickling, G. J. (2005). Condition dependence of testis size in small mammals. Evolution and Ecology Research, 1, 143–149.

Setchell, B. P., Waites, G. M. H., & Linder, H. R. (1965). Effect of under nutrition on testicular blood flow and metabolism and the output of testosterone in the ram. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 9, 149–162.

Shoyombo, A., Fasanya, O., Bunjah, U., & Yakubu, H. (2012). On-farm prediction of testicular characteristics in bucks at specific ages. World Journal of Life Science and Medicine and Research, 2(3), 114–117.

Smith, O. B., & Akinbamijo, O. O. (2000). Micronutrients and reproduction in farm animals. Animal Reproduction Science, 60-61, 549–560.

SSMIYSC. (2010). Sokoto State Government Dairy. Ministry of Information and Youth, Sport and Culture.

Stagger, K., & Wrobel, K. H. (1994). Immunohistochemical demonstration of cytoskeletal proteins in the ovine testis during postnatal development. Anatomy and Embryology, 189, 521–530.

Steel, R. G. D., & Torrie, J. A. (1980). Principles and Procedure of Statistics. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc.

Ugwu, S. O. C. (2009). Relationship between scrotal circumference, in situ testicular measurements and sperm reserves in the West African dwarf bucks. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8(7), 1354–1357.