COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MENTAL TOUGHNESS AMONG THE ARCHERS AND SHOOTERS

Dr. Kshetrimayum Rojeet Singh, Dr. Anil Mili

Abstract


Objective of the study is to assess the mental toughness level of the archers and shooter and to compare the mental toughness level between the two sports athletes i.e., archers and shooters. Methods: For the purpose of the study twenty four (24) Archers (16 boys and 8 girls) and (24) Shooters (16 boys and 8 girls) were selected from Amritsar, Punjab and Imphal, Manipur were selected for the purpose of the study. The age of the athletes were ranged from 21 to 27 years. And to assess the mental toughness of the athletes of the selected sports i.e., Archery and Shooting the Mental Toughness Questionnaire by Dr. Alan Goldberg was used. The descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, std. error mean etc. was used and for the comparison between the two sports on the factor of mental toughness the independent “t-test” was used. Results: The mean and standard deviation of the factors of mental toughness for shooters and archers are Rebound Ability (3.375 ± 1.209) and (4.042 ± 1.233), Handle Pressure (4.208 ± 1.285) and (3.833 ± 1.129), Concentration Ability (3.917 ± 1.176) and (4.167 ± 1.007), Level of Confidence (4.458 ± 1.179) and (2.917 ± 1.381) and Motivation (4.458 ± 0.779) and (4.792 ± 1.103) respectively. The “t-test” results shows that out of all the selected factors exists a significant difference in level of confidence (p = .000), as the obtain p value was less than 0.05 (p ˂ .05). This implies that in spite of similarities in nature of sports events there exists differences, or there are special requirements for participation in these sports. The existence of similarities in between triathletes and cyclists is prevalent in rebound ability (p = .065), handle pressure (p = .288), concentration ability (p = .433) and motivation (p = .233), as their obtained p values were less than 0.05 (p ˃ .05). Conclusion: the present study shows that archers are bit better in confidence level than shooters and rest of the factors of mental toughness are similar. It must be noted that the present research was solely a comparison in nature and that future studies would be needed to assess how athletes actually interpret behavior in competitive sports situations. And again additional research is needed to find out the real reason of similarities and difference exists in the present study.

Keywords


mental toughness, archers, shooters, reboundability, handle pressure, concentration ability, level of confidence and motivation.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Austin, Dan., & Mann, Bryn. (2012). Powerlifting. USA: Human Kinetics, p.173.

Bertollo, M., Robazza, C., Falasca, W. N., Stocchi, M., Babiloni, C., Del Percio, C., ... & Limatola, C. (2012). Temporal pattern of pre-shooting psycho-physiological states in elite athletes: A probabilistic approach.Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(2), 91-98. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1469029211001269 on 02-05-2016.

Biddle, S. J. (1985). Mental preparation, mental practice and strength tasks: a need for clarification. Journal of Sports Sciences, 3(1), 67-74.

Bottoni, A., Gianfelici, A., Tamburri, R. & Faina, M. (2011). Talent selection criteria for Olympic distance triathlon. Journal of Human Sport & Exercise, 6(2), pp. 293-304.

Cox, Richard. H. (1998). Sport psychology: Concepts and applications, fourth edition. USA: McGraw Hill Companies, p. 30-42.

Driskell, J. E., Copper, C., & Moran, A. (1994). Does mental practice enhance performance? Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(4), 481.

Friel, J., & Vance, J. (2013). Triathlon science. USA: Human Kinetics, pp. 573-581.

Galloway, J. (2012). Cross-Country Running. UK: Meyer & Meyer, p. 22.

Gill, D. L. (1986). Psychological dynamics of sport. USA: Human Kinetics, p. 31-33.

Golby, J. & Sheard, M. (2004). Mental toughness and hardiness at different levels of rugby league. Personality and Individual Differences, 37, 933–942.

Gould, D., Dieffenbach, K. & Moffett, A. (2002). Psychological characteristics and their development in Olympic champions. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14(3), 172-204.

James, R. (1982). The Effect of Weight Training on the Self-Concept of Male Undergraduates. The Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), p. 23.

Kleanthous, M. (2013). The complete book of triathlon training, ironman triathlon edition. UK: Meyer & Meyer, pp. 18-77.

Konttinen, N., Lyytinen, H., & Konttinen, R. (1995). Brain slow potentials reflecting successful shooting performance. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 66(1), 64-72. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02701367.1995.10607656 on 02-05-2016.

Konttinen, N., Landers, D. M., & Lyytinen, H. (2000). Aiming routines and their electrocortical concomitants among competitive rifle shooters.Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 10(3), 169-177. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1034/j.1600-0838.2000.010003169.x/abstract on 02-05-2016.

Landers, D. M., Boutcher, S. H., & Wang, M. Q. (1986). A psychobiological study of archery performance. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport,57(3), 236-244. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02701367.1986.10605403 on 2-05-2016.

Lopez, A.V. & Santelices, O.Y.S. (2012). Personality characteristics of elite table tennis athletes of the Philippines: basis for a proposed recruitment program. International Journal of Table Tennis Sciences, 7, 1-4.

Nicholls, A. R., Polman, R. C., Levy, A. R. & Backhouse, S. H. (2009). Mental toughness in sport: Achievement level, gender, age, experience, and sport type differences. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(1), 73-75.

Richter, J., Gilbert, J. N., & Baldis, M. (2012). Maximizing Strength Training Performance Using Mental Imagery. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 34(5), 65-69.

Stoeber, J., Uphill, M. A. & Hotham, S. (2009). Predicting race performance in triathlon: The role of perfectionism, achievement goals, and personal goal setting. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 31(2), 211-245.

Wielinga, Remmert., Cowcher, Paul., & Bernabei, Thommaso. (2011). Cycling serious about your sport. London, UK: New Holland Publishers Ltd, pp. 12-88.

Xianming, T., Yonggang, X., & Xiaomin, C. (1998). Study on the Attribution Tendentiousness in Shooting Players [J]. JOURNAL OF GUANGZHOU PHYSICAL EDUCATION INSTITUE, 2. Retrieved from http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-GZTX802.007.htm on 02-05-2016.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.



International Educational Scientific Research Journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License Based on a work at www.iesrj.com

Copyright © 2016 INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH JOURNAL.

Disclaimer: Articles on International Educational Scientific Research Journal have been previewed and authenticated by the Authors before sending for the publication. The Journal, Chief Editor and the editorial board are not entitled or liable to either justify or responsible for inaccurate and misleading data if any. It is the sole responsibility of the Author concerned.